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Perkembangan Psikologi di Negara Jerman Menurut Para Ahli

Perkembangan Psikologi di Negara Jerman Menurut Para Ahli - Sebagaimana diketahui, psikologi sebagai ilmu yang mandiri dianggap oleh kebanyakan literature Eropa berawal dari didirikannya laboratorium psikologi pertama di Leipzig pada tahun 1879 oleh Wilhem Wund (1832-1920). Wundt yang dokter tetapi juga pakar ilmu-ilmu sosial itu, mula-mula bereksperimen di laboratorium ilmu faal dnegna menggunakan teori-teori dan metode-metode ilmu faal (khusus neurologi) sebagaimana yang diajarkan kepadanya antara lain oleh Herman Ludwig von Helmholtz (1821-1894). Akan tetapi dari eksperimen itu (yang pada umumnya tentang persepsi). Wundt menyadari bahwa tidak semua bisa diterangkan dengan ilmu faa. Gejala Unbewuster Schluss (penyimpulan tak sadar), misalnya, yang membuktikan adanya pengaruh memori terhadap persepsi, mengukuhkan tekad Wundt untuk membuat laboratorium khusu psikologi yang menggunakan teori dan metode introspeksi yang juga khas psikologi.

Sejak Wundt mendirikan laboratorium psikologinya yang pertama di dunia tersebut, maka banyak orang yang belajar kepada Wundt di Leipzig. E. B. Titchner (1867-1927), misalnya, yang barasal dari Sussex, Inggris, tidak hanya mempelajari teori-teori Wundt, melainkan juga menerjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa Inggris dan membawanya ke Amerika Serikat dan menyebarluaskannya di sana melalui kuliah-kuliahnya di Cornell Univesity, New York. Boleh dikatakan bahwa masyarakat psikologi di Amerika Serikat (termasuk tokoh behaviorisme J.B. Watson, 1878- 1958) mengenal psikologinya Wundt dari buku-buku Titchner, anara alin Experimental Psychology. Murid Wundt yang lain adalah James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944) yang kemudian menjadi guru besar di Teacher’s College of Columbia. Semasa menjadi mahasiswa Wundt, Cattell pernah bereksperimen tentang perbedaan individual, yang ingin dicobakannya tanpa menggunakanm etode introspeksi (metode utama dari psikologi Wundt). Hal ini membuat Wundt marah. Menurut Wundt, upaya Cattell adalah Amerikanisasi psikologi, karena yang boleh menjadi orang percobaan dalam psikologi Wundt hanyalah para sarjana psikologi. Cattell kemudian kembali ke Amerika Serikat untuk meneruskan eksperimen-eksperimennya di Amerika Serikat.

Perkembangan Psikologi di Negara Jerman Menurut Para Ahli
image source: blogpsikologi.blogspot.com

Bersama-sama dengan mahasiswa-mahasiswa Wundt yang berasal dari Jerman sendiri, mahasiswa-mahasiswa Wundt dari luar Jerman ini saling berkomunikasi antar mereka sendiri dan tetap berkomunikasi dengan Wundt, sehingga tidak mengherankan bahwa di masa itu Jerman menjadi acuan utama dari psikologi dunia. Dengan dmeikian Jerman menjadi pusat perkembangan psikologi dunia. Dapat dikatakan bahwa aliran-aliran besar dalam psikologi di dunia saat itu dan beberapa di antaranya masih bertahan hingga saat ini, berasal dan berawal dari Jerman, antara lain Psikologi Gestalt, Psikologi Wurzburg dan Psikologi Ganzheit. Walaupun demikian aliran-aliran Jerman pada masa itu masih bersifat umum dan bersibuk diri dengan mencari hukum-hukum dan dalil-dalil umum sebagaimana yang lazim pada ilmu pasti dan ilmu faal pada khususnya. Jadi psikologi Jerman ketika itu memang masih berbicara tentang karakterologi (ilmu tentang karakter manusia), tipologi (ilmu untuk menggolong-golongkan manusia ke dalam beberapa jenis karakter), dan Volker Psychologie.

Perang Dunia II

Perkembangan yang sedang menuju puncak ini, ternyata harus terputus dengan meningkatnya aktiviatas partai Nazi menjelang Perang Dunia II. Menjelang malam pembantaian orang-orang Yahudi oleh massa Jerman (yang dikenal dengan peristiwa Hollocaust), tokoh-tokoh penting Jerman keturunan Yahudi sudah melarikan diri dari Jerman, termasuk tokoh-tokoh psikologi. Mereka yang melarikan diri tersebut, antara lain adalah Adhemar Gelb, Kurt Goldsten, William Stern, Heinz Werner, Max Wertheimer, Otto Selz, David Katz, Kurt Lewin dan Wolfgang Kohler (yang satu ini hanya simpatisan Yahudi). Sementara itu, pengganti-pengganti mereke yang mengisi pos-pos yang ditinggalkan di Jerman, walaupun tidak seluruhnya pengikut partai Nazi, tidak mengutuk atau menunjukkan antipatinya terhadap ulah partai Nazi yang tidak berperikemanusiaan itu. Tidak mengherankan bahwa psikologi di Jerman tidak hanya putus hubungan dengan dunia luar, melainkan juga tidak mendapat simpati dari dunia internsaional (khususnya Amerika Serikat).

Pasca Perang Dunia II

Setelah 1945, pada umumnya sarjana-sarjana psikologi di Jerman tidak menyarakan psikolgi Nazi, kecuali beberapa orang seperti E.R. Jaensch dan G. Pfahler. Tetapi mereka tidak juga mengembangkan teori sendiri. Sedangkan selama masa kekuasaannya, partai Nazi sendiri hanya berminat pada psikologi sejauh untuk seleksi personil militer. Itupun hanya untuk waktu yang singkat (selama perang), sehingga tidak cukup waktu untuk mengembangkan penelitian.

Tetapi karena hubungna Jerman Barat- Amerika Serikat sangat baik setelah Perang Dunia II (secara politik Jerman Barat beraifliasi ke Amerika Serikat), maka psikologi Jermanpun mulai bangkit kembali. Bantuan-bantuan dari Amerika Serikat mulai berdatangna dalam bentuk jurnal-jurnal dan buku-buku dan beasiswa untuk mengirimkan mahasiswa Jerman untuk belajar di Amerika Serikat. Sejak itu program-program studi psikologi dibuka di berbagai universitas di Jerman, sehingga saat ini tercatat 44 univesitas di Jerman yang menawarkan program studi psikologi.

Jerman Timur

Di sisi lain, psikologi di Jerman Timur tidak mengalami perkembangan yang berarti, karena terisolasi dari Dunia Barat. Iklim politik yang mengacu ke Rusia juga menyebabkan perkembangan psikologi di Jerman Timur dibatasi dan diarahkan oleh aksioma-aksioma dialektika dn historika militerisme dan teori-teori Marxisme. Sedangkan penggunaan psikotes sama sekali dilarang oleh pemerintah Uni Sovyet, yang berpengaruh juga di Jerman Timur. Walaupun dmeikian ada juga upaya untuk melibatkan kembali psikologi di Jerman Timur ke dalam dunia psikologi internasional, antara lain dengan peneylenggaaraan Kongres IUPsyS (International Union of Psychological Societies) di Leipzig (Jerman Timur) pada tahun 1980 (dalam rangka memperingati 100 tahun laboratorium Wund).

Amerika Serikat

Masa setelah tahun 1950-1n dalam abad XX dalam sejarah psikologi memamng menjadi eranya Amerika Serikat karena menurunnya supremasi Jerman selama dan sesudah Perang Dunia II tersebut di atas. Pertemuan antara strukturalismenya Wundt yang dibawa oleh Titchner ke Amerika Serikat dengan paham fungsionalismenya William James dan kawan-kawan di Amerika Serikat sendiri telah membuahkan berbagai teori dan aliran baru di Amerika Serikat. J.B. Watson, misalnya, sebagai salah seoran gmantan mahasiswa Titchnere, di kemduan hari (1913) mencetuskan aliran behaviorisme sebagai penajaman dari aliran fungsionalisme yang ketika itu sedang menjadi trend. Pada gilirannya behaviorisme ini bertemu dengna field psychology yang dikembangkan oleh tokoh psikologi Jerman, Kurt Lewin, untuk melahirkan aliran psikologi kognitif. Behaviorisme klasik ala Watson yang mengabaikan sama sekali faktor-faktor internal (proses yang covert, psikodinamika, elemen-elemen kesadaran, dan sebagainya). Melalui tokoh-tokohnya antara lain Edwin B.Holt (1873-1946) dan Edwar Chase Tolman (1886-1959) akhirnya menyesuaikan diri dengna perkembangan pemikiran dalam psikologi sebagaimana yang diperkenalkan oleh Lewin. Maka berkembanglah aliran psikologi kognitif (artinya: kesadaran), antara lain seperti yang dikemukakan oleh F. Heider (1946 mempublikasikan tulisannya: Attitudes and Cognitive Organization) dan Leon Festinger (1957: A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance) yang sampai saat ini masih sangat popular di Amerika Serikat.

Kembali ke Jerman. Setelah penyatuan kembali Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur, pada tahun 1990-an psikologi di Jerman berkembang dengan lebih pesat. Jeraman kembali terlibat aktif di dalam pergaulan internasional psikologi. Walaupun demikian tidak terhindari bahwa aliran-aliran yang berkembang di Jerman dalam decade terakhir abad XX ini banyak diwarnai oleh kecenderungna-kecenderungan yang ada di Amerika Serikat, seperti positivism, relativisme, pragmatism dan utilitarisme.

Berikut bukan tulisan saya, saya ambil dari jurnal yang tertera di daftar pustaka. Digunakan hanya untuk kepentingan blog ini

The history of psychology in the «German Democratic Republic» (GDR) is over. It has disappeared into the annals of the general history of psychology. And yet, psychology as it existed in that country still remains to be documented. Our contribution is only a small beginning, written from the point of view of two eyewitnesses and chroniclers who were there at the time.

In the presentation of the history of psychology in the GDR one must consider concrete traces of events. This kind of evidence (documentary and otherwise) is necessary because massive historic changes were and are always associated with both intentional and unintentional loss of such traces. Even a brief glance at history shows that all political upheavals are accompanied by loss of differentiations, re-evaluations of historical events, new orientations and above all with the destructions of traces and images. In the process of the unifi cation of the two Germanys, the loss of traces includes not only many documents and archival materials on the history of psychology in the GDR, but also many psychological publications in the form of books, volumes of collected essays, reports, journals, articles, etc., which had appeared during the GDR time. In the years 1991-1992, for example, the authors were able to observe how many scientificlibraries were sorting out and destroying scientifi c literature that had been published in the GDR. Therefore we intentionally included for future scholars in the history of psychology in Germany, as documentation, a thorough index to the literature. With its help, it should be possible for future historians to search directly for still extant sources for reconstructing the history of psychology in the GDR properly.

Which sources of data did we, as witnesses of the times and as chronicler, use? The main source of the data was memories that were based on documents. Our account is based on a participation of about thirty years in the developments, i.e., in the research, theory, training, scientifi c polities, publication process, and popularization of psychology in the GDR. In this we have especially differentiated memories in those fi elds in which we specialized for decades: methodology, psychodiagnosis, clinical psychology, general psychology, theoretical psychology, and history of psychology.

2. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY IN POSTWAR GERMANY 1945-1949: THE YEARS TOGETHER

More as sixty years ago, in the night of May 8th to 9th , 1945 in Berlin-Karlshorst, the supreme commanders of the three branches of the German armed forces, with their signatures, sealed the total defeat of the «Drittes Reich» (Third Reich, Nazi Germany) in World War II in Europe. This marked the beginning of the common postwar history of the German people. The balance sheet of the war was appalling. In World War II, about 62 million people lost their lives, about 27 million people from the Soviet Union, Poland lost about 6 million individuals, Japan about 1,8 million, Yugoslavia about 1,7 million, France about 810,000, Hungary about 420,000, Great Britain about 386,000, Italy about 330,000, and the United States about 318,000 people, etc. About six million Germans died in World War II, about fi ve million of them were soldiers. In concentration camps and prisons, about 8 million human beings of different nationalities, religions and races were murdered. The list could be continued. And the fi rst victims were Germans, when National Socialism started the war against its own population. In the literature, the numbers vary. But bare numbers themselves still cannot convey the horror of the individual fates that they represent.

In the field of psychology, National Socialist rule led to the closing of some schools and institutes. Others found a new lease on life or continued to operate, as long as they kept a low profi le, made accommodations, conducted research of military interest, or served the Fascist ideology. Many psychologists were driven out of the country. After 1933, 14% of the members of the «Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychology» (German Psychological Association) emigrated. Among the emigrants were leaders in their fi elds and promising young scholars. Walter Blumenfeld (1882-1967), Karl Bühler (1879-1963), Charlotte Bühler (1893-1974), Karl Duncker (1903-1940), Adhémar Gelb (1887-1936), David Katz (1884-1953), Rosa Katz (1885-1962), Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), Kurt Lewin (1890-1947), Wilhelm Peters (1880-1963), William Stern (1871-1938), Clara Stern (1875-1945), Egon Weigl (1902-1979), Heinz Werner (1890-1964) and Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) are some who can be recalled. A few, like Otto Lipmann (1880-1933) and Martha Muchow (1892-1933), were driven to commit suicide. Others joined the resistance and were transported to prisons and concentration camps, as were Curt Bondy (1894-1972) and Heinrich Düker (1898-1986). More exact investigation into this chapter in the history of German psychology still remains to be carried out.

What happened next? Shortly after the end of World War II, instruction in psychology resumed at the universities in the four occupied zones in Germany. But the so-called «Stunde Null» (the zero hour) in 1945 was neither politically nor academically a zero hour. In the Soviet zone of occupation – i.e. the territory that later constituted the GDR – the Soviet Military Administration issued the order to resume instruction at the universities on September 15th, 1945. Two years later, in 1947, an early form of professional training for psychologists was initiated. It was based on a «denazifi ed» version of the 1941 curriculum. In research, the fi elds of concentration followed from the institute directors’ previous areas of work. In Berlin, this was Kurt Gottschaldt (1902-1991) with his research on genetic psychology. In Dresden, it was Werner Straub (1904-1983) and his work in industrial psychology. In Leipzig, it was Werner Fischel (1900-1977) and his interest in animal psychology and biopsychology.

Translations of Russian works on psychology familiarized psychologists with psychology in the Soviet Union. These included books by Konstantin N. Kornilov (1879-1957), Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936), Boris M. Teplov (1896-1965) and Sergej L. Rubinstein (1889-1960). Later, books by Alexander N. Leontiev (1903-1979), Alexander R. Luria (1902-1977) und Lev S. Vygotskij (1896-1934) were translated. On the other hand, there was also renewed strong attention of psychological developments from the United States during this time.

3. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (EAST GERMANY) 1949-1961: THE DIFFICULT YEARS TOGETHER

The evolution of psychology in postwar Germany was embedded in the general political developments. This was the period of Germany’s increasing division into two political systems, which reached its fi rst peak in 1949 with the founding of the «Federal Republic of Germany» (FRG) and of the «German Democratic Republic» (GDR). In 1951, a new degree-granting program was introduced. It took into account both the intellectual progress that had been made in international psychology and the country’s demands on psychology. Three internships were introduced to prepare graduates for professional employment: educational psychology, industrial psychology and clinical psychology. Beyond this, an experimental thesis was introduced as a new requirement for the diploma. Curriculum reform occurred again in 1955. Once more, the contents of the areas of instruction were brought up to date. This, in turn, affected the main fi elds in which psychology was applied. In addition, the length of the study program was extended to fi ve years.

4. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (EAST GERMANY) 1961-1990: THE YEARS OF DIVISION

4.1 General characteristics

In 1961, the two German countries were divided by «the Wall». The construction of the «Wall» had consequences that were graver for the development of psychology in the GDR than the founding of the two German states in 1949 had been. The «Wall» resulted in organizational and, to a great extent, personal separation between psychologists in the two German states. One consequence of the «Wall» was that the «Gesellschaft für Psychologie der DDR» (Psychological Association of the GDR) was founded on October 19th, 1962, with Werner Straub of Dresden as chairman. This Association sponsored seven congresses until it was disbanded. The fi rst congress took place in Dresden in 1964. Subsequent congresses were held in 1968 in Berlin, 1972 in Erfurt, 1975 in Leipzig, 1979 in Berlin, 1983 in Leipzig and 1988 in Leipzig. A separate psychological association became necessary once there was a dividing «Wall» standing between the two German states –and became superfl uous– once it had fallen.

One month after the unifi cation of the two Germanys, the «Gesellschaft für Psychologie der DDR» was disbanded on November 3, 1990. From 1961 to 1989, offi cial relations between psychologists from the two German states were diffi cult. The diffi culties were due, on one hand, to the Federal Republic’s «Hallstein Doctrine» with respect to the GDR, and on the other hand, to the GDR’s «politics of separation» (Abgrenzungspolitik) from the Federal Republic. According to the «Hallstein Doctrine», any state that maintained diplomatic relations with the FRG would have to reckon with sanctions should it treat the GDR as an independent state. The politics of separation contains the rejection of every one special German-German relations.

However, on both sides of the «Wall», there were psychologists who attempted to mitigate the effects of political division. This occurred at fi rst on the private level, then increasingly at the offi cial level. Among the bridge-builders spanning the Iron Curtain were also some colleagues from the United States. Our special thanks go out to them today. Also, the positive cooperative relations that existed with the «American Psychological Association» (APA) in preparing and carrying out the 22nd Congress of the «International Union of Psychological Science» (IUPsyS), in Leipzig in 1980 warrant special mention and thanks. International organizations offered one of several forms of cooperation. The «International Union of Psychological Science» played a special role. At the 18th IUPsyS Congress in Moscow in 1966, it was decided to admit the «Gesellschaft für Psychologie der DDR» (Psychological Association of the GDR) to the International Union. In 1972 at the 20th IUPsyS Congress in Tokyo, a decision was made to hold the 22nd Congress in the GDR. That took place in Leipzig in July, 1980. Another form of cooperation with psychologists from the German Federal Republic and the United States, during the period when Germany was split, was the organization of conferences with international participation in the GDR. Conferences between East and West Germany alone were impossible due to the GDR’s politics of separation. Trips by psychologists from the GDR to the Federal Republic or the USA were authorized only in exceptional cases. A further form of cooperation consisted of carrying out conference series in the GDR and other «East Block» countries. One example was the «Baltic symposia» (Ostseesymposien), which came about at the initiative of psychologists from the GDR. Psychologists from the countries bordering the Baltic Sea (the Ostsee) were invited. «Meetings of psychologists from the Danube countries» (Treffen der Psychologen der Donauländer) were another example. They were created at the initiative of psychologists from Czechoslovakia, and participants from the countries bordering the Danube were invited. Only in the late 1980s did it appear that the opportunity was again emerging to carry out conferences between the two Germanys. In 1988, such an intention was agreed to during a discussion between the presidents of the two German psychological associations. Yet before such a conference could be realized, the history of the GDR came to an end.

4.2 General developments during the 1960s and 1970s

The 60s and 70s marked a generational change among psychologists. The new generation was especially versed in developments in the United States and the Soviet Union (now: Russia). Some psychologists had studied in the Soviet Union or had gone there for additional coursework. Beyond this, the new generation reaffi rmed its strong connection to the experimental traditions of 19th century psychology in Germany.

Where did these changes occur? During the 60s and 70s, fi elds of work came to the forefront that make the transformation clear in terms of content, methods, and terminology. Examples are such fi elds as information psychology, cognitive psychology, biopsychology, cybernetic psychology and the psychology of behavioral regulation. Above and beyond this, old fi elds of study were reworked with new theoretical and methodological bases. Examples include general psychology, developmental psychology, psychodiagnosis, personality psychology, social psychology and psychophysics.

New areas of instruction appeared in the curricula under headings such as methodology, test theory and mathematical psychology New terms refl ect the expansion of applied psychology into many new fi elds such as engineering psychology, traffi c psychology, and psychological manager training. During the 80s, health psychology, organizational psychology and political psychology were added.

Unfortunately, in the early 60s, a process of dehistoricalization occurred in almost all areas of instruction. That is, parts of lectures dealing with explaining the historical development of the various individual areas of psychology disappeared. Well into the 50s, lengthy historical background had been a component of almost all lecture series. But during the late 60s and especially in the 70s, the history of psychology become an independent area of instruction and research. As of the 70s, it was offered as an optional subject in all degree-granting institutes. By the 80s, it was a mandatory subject with examinations within the training program for certifi ed psychologists. During the late 70s, there was further institutionalization of the history of psychology. This continued during the 80s with increased intensity.


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